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THE FORTRESS COSTEŞTI-CETĂŢUIE

In the first phase of construction on the west, south and east slopes a wave (rise/ditch terrace) was lifted, in the shape of a huge horse-shoe-that denied access from the sattle linked with Ciocuta. Its total length in antiquity was about 340 m. His actual height kept at around 0.50 - 2.50 m, off course much less then the initial one. In the interior the wave has a small ditch, flat bottom, resulting from the hoeing of the earth necessary for its lift. Throughout the whole section on the southern slope, the ditch was used in antiquity as a road. The inner structure of the wave was very simple, containing only poles stuck vertically here and there to prevent land slides.
Also in the first phase of construction, a wave of earth was raised on the lower terrace that goes around the plateau, 6-8 m wide at the base which, today is in pretty bad shape. On its top there were two rows of poles, 20-22 cm thick, 3.30 m apart from one another and united through transversal beams. Similar beams were planted longitudinal, thus obtaining a sort of wooden case filled with earth. These wooden “armatures” considerably increased the height and thus the effectiveness of the wave (again rise/ditch/terrace). In the second phase, on the more gentle southern and eastern slopes, leading to the narrow saddle, linking it to the southern hills, four towers were constructed out of calcareous rock, constructed from Hellenic techniques. Blocks of calcar, generally shaped in a quarry and retouched at the site, were carefully smoothened on five sides. The sixth side facing the interior was lightly carved.
They were placed side by side, perfectly bonded, into parallel rows. The space between the two covers was filled with shattered rock and earth. Still, until the perfect raming of the emplecton, this exerted side pushes which could take to the shattering of the liner. In order to avoid this, here and there in the blocks were drilled gutters, wider to the exterior and narrower to the interior (in “swallow’s tail”) and in them extremities of wooden carved beams were clamped.
In the same time the two towers in the north side of the hill (which flanked the ancient road leading to the fortress) were raised and one on the east side of the hill, on a man-made terrace, near to the sancturies.
Further, the defense system of the fortress is upgraded through the adding of the curtain wall which links the first three towers described earlier. In the proximity of tower II the wall in interupted making room for the gate. A particularity of the curtain wall consists of the seven inner counterforts, placed at a distance of about 12 m one from another, in the section between towers I and II. The purpose of these short walls, for their placement cavities in the rocky background having to be dug, is not clearly known. It is presumed that it made up the support for war platforms, althought the distances between them are quite large. At this wall, as at the narrower one which protected from the hill the terrace which nests the intra muros sanctuary, a particularity can be noticed in the construction tehnique: after two-three blocks placed with their length in the direction of the wall, another perpendicular wall on the face of the wall follows, stuck in the emplecton, this hellenic tehnique leads to a increased solidity. In the interior of the fortress, in the same phase of construction, and the north and south ends of the eliptical plateau, two monumental construction were rased, the some-called dwelling towers
These edifices are constructed in a mixt tehnique: starting from rock, in a manner described upward, continuing at the upper part with a wall of large bricks, barelly burnt, glued together with clay. In the dwelling-towers an alternance in the placement of the blocks can be noticed placed with the longer side of the wall facing the other ones, stuck deep in the emplecton. The exterior corners of the both dwelling-towers are carved, presenting a vertical profile in succesive withdrawals with double joints. Here too, the adherence of the two covers was realised through beams inserted in the chambers dug in to the blocks. Remarcably is the care towards the aesthetic aspect of the wall, few times could the ditches be seen from the outside. The height of the rocky part of the towers was about 2 m, and the brick part (upper story) had to be raised more then 3 m, the total height being of 5-6 m. The roof has built out of massive tiles, the “greek” type, with riffling, placed on a wooden skeleton. The ground floor was used as a storage, the actual dwelling, in which it is presumed that some of the of dacian kings stood, being situated at upper levels.
At the base of both dwelling-towers foundations of other constructions can be found having a base made out of rock, which, in succesion, were preceded by some wooden construction. When these two buildings were built is hard to determine, althought tempting, the dating before Burebista’s epoch has lack of arguments. Valid is the presumption that the monumental staircase which leads to the dwelling-tower # 2 is anterior to this, therefore the construction could be even older.
In the surroundings of the eliptical plateau a simple wooden palisade rises and other simple palisades surrounded the perimeter of the two dwelling-towers. In what concernes the dating of these palisades, it has to be lower then the two dwelling-towers and contemporary with the monumental stair-case. In the last phase of construction, the third, the so-called “red wave” is dated, which, following the general route of the old wave, it reveals itself as “pliers” in front of tower II, forming the entrance. It required to the rised because, in the time of the first war, 101-102, and in the period at the war, the wave suffered serious deteriorations, otherwise the whole fortress.
In the fever of rebuilding the castle, the wave was raised on red earth, resulting from the burnt constructions. Since the work was made in a hurry, the wave eliminate tower I, running over it. The intra muros sanctury was partially took down and the wall over it, its scaddles and blocks were used from the fortification of the wave and for blocking the gate in the wall, next to tower II. In the interior of the fortress, still in the first and second phase two tanks were dug and, still then, grooves were dug in the rock, used for gathering rain water, so needed in a place with a lack of natural springs.
On the superior plateau were discovered remains of some barracks and an observation tower. On the terraces set up on the interior of the walls, but outside them too, a rich archealogical material was discovered consisting of tools and weapons of iron, construction materials, ceramics, jewels, imported goods, coins and other.